Thursday, September 26, 2013

The cask paragraph

A symbol of irony in the cask of amontillado is that the names Fortunato can mean fortunate. It is ironic because he is about to encounter the worst possible thing that can happen which is not fortunate. ("THE thousand  injuries  of  Fortunato I had borne as I best could; but when he ventured upon insult, I vowed revenge.") This states that his name is fortunato and that Montresor will soon get his revenge. The irony of his name is that it is unfortunate what happened to him.

Tuesday, September 24, 2013

heart and cat

“The Tell-Tale Heart” by Edgar Allen Poe


Author Biography

Edgar Allen Poe (1809-1849) was born in Boston, Massachusetts. Orphaned at

an early age, he was taken in by a wealthy family in Virginia. During his life, Poe

endured personal tragedies, including the death of his mother, a difficult stay in

his foster home, a college career shortened by debts and misconduct, the death

of his wife at a young age, and years of poverty. These tragedies influenced

Poe’s writing so that his short stories were filled with horror. He believed that a

short story should be written to produce a single emotional effect for the reader:

all events, characters, ideas, and words should be chosen and manipulated

solely for the purpose of achieving this effect. “The Tell-Tale Heart” is one of the

best examples of Poe’s tales of terror.

Literary Focus:

Atmosphere and MoodThe atmosphere or mood of a story is the overall emotional

feeling created by the details the author uses: Sometimes you may be able to

describe the atmosphere in a single word – sad, frightening, or mysterious, for

example. Authors create atmosphere by their descriptions of settings, characters,

and events. They choose words carefully so that you will be affected by their

writing in the way they want you to be.

Knowing the following words will help you as you read “The TellTale Heart.” Before reading, preview the words and what they mean. It may also


help if you scan through the story, find, and then underline the words in the text.



Acute sensitive over-acuteness

foresight thoughtful regard for the future concealment


the hiding of one’s feelings or purposes waned


troubled, distressed, caused agitation scantlings


seeing beyond what is obvious suavity

sagacity sound judgment bade


awe a mixed feeling of reverence, fear, and wonder reposed

crevice a narrow opening gesticulations

distinctness unmistakable, clearly defined derision


Verbal Irony-occurs when there is a difference between what a character says

and what another character understands

Ex. "The cake is as soft as concrete" - the person wants to tell that the cake is not so soft to eat.

 "Water is as clear as mud" - The person actually says that the water is not at all clear.

  "Isn't it as pleasant as a root canal?" - This implies that whatever occurred was not pleasant at


Example from Tell-Tale Heart:

(Hint: what does the narrator say about himself?)

1. the heart was beating in the floorboards.

Situational Irony when the opposite of what one would expect to happen

actually happens

Ex. My dog Lucky was hit by a car.

Example from Tell-Tale Heart:

2.He confesses.

Dramatic Irony : when the reader/audience knows something that a character



giving careful attention audacity

Example from Tell-Tale Heart:

3.The cops are standing in the floor boards and the man in under them.

4.   How does an author use sensory details to describe the atmosphere or mood

of a short story? The heart was hearing and the eye was sense of sight.

5.  In what ways do our choice of words create specific atmosphere and

characterization? details.

III. Literary Elements

6. Mood, or atmosphere, is the overall feeling in the story. How would you

describe the mood in this story? What details does Poe use to create the mood?The mood is dark and sad. The whole story in nervous and manic.

7. Symbolism: What does the heartbeat noise symbolize in the story? Provide

evidence from the story. guilt

8. How does first paragraph foreshadow, or hint at, the events of the story? Be

specific (use a quote)! He says in the beginning that he is not crazy.

9. The final paragraph in the story builds to a kind of mad climax. How does the

writer use words and punctuation to create? Dashes and exclamation points.

10.  What does the narrator repeatedly claim about himself? Why? He is not crazy

“The Black Cat”

11.  An allusion is a reference to a person, place, or thing.  What allusion exists

in the story?  thae cats name in pluto and the roman god of the underworld

12.  From what point of view is the story told?  What effect does this create? it is done as a confession and an unreliable narrator.

13.  What’s the significance of the title animal?  Explain. Black cat

14.  What foreshadowing could you find in the story? The narrator hangs cat from a noose ad later you see a noose and the narrator is hung from a noose.

15.  What similarities do you see in this story and “The Tell-Tale Heart.” First person narrator crazy.

Tuesday, September 17, 2013

cask p5a arsham kosari

“The Cask Of Amontillado” Reflection Questions

irony (i-RAH-nee): a literary term referring to how a person, situation, statement,

or circumstance is not as it would actually seem. Many times it is the exact opposite

of what it appears to be. There are many types of irony, the three most common

being verbal irony, dramatic irony, and cosmic irony. Verbal irony occurs when

either the speaker means something totally different than what he is saying or the

audience realizes, because of their knowledge of the particular situation to which

the speaker is referring, that the opposite of what a character is saying is true.

Verbal irony also occurs when a character says something in jest that, in actuality, is

true. In Julius Caesar, Marc Antony’s reference to Brutus being an honorable man is

an example of verbal irony. Marc Antony notes all of the good deeds Julius Caesar

did for his people while, more than once, he asks the rhetorical question, “Did this in

Caesar seem ambitious?” Antony uses this rhetorical question to try to convince his

audience that Caesar is not ambitious, presenting Brutus as a dishonorable man

because of his claim that Caesar was ambitious. Dramatic irony occurs when facts

are not known to the characters in a work of literature but are known by the

audience. Cosmic irony suggests that some unknown force brings about dire and

dreadful events.

Throughout the story, Poe uses verbal and dramatic irony to build suspense,

foreshadow the ending, and add a touch of macabre humor. Here are some examples


The Title: The word cask, meaning wine barrel, is derived from the same root word

used to form casket, meaning coffin. Thus, the cask figuratively represents

Fortunato’s casket.

Fortunato’s Name: The Italian name Fortunato suggests good fortune, luck.

However, Fortunato is anything but fortunate; he is going to his death.

Fortunato’s Costume: Fortunato dresses as a court jester. His festive outfit contrasts

with the ghastly fate that awaits him. From time to time, the bell on his cone-shaped

hat jingles–a nice comic touch from Poe.

Reference to Masons: Fortunato asks Montresor whether his is a mason, meaning a

member of the fraternal order of Freemasonry. Montresor says he is indeed a

mason. However, he is using the word to mean a craftsman who builds with stone

and mortar (because he will be building Fortunato’s “tomb,” a stone wall.)

Poe also uses irony frequently in the dialogue. For example, when Montresor runs

into Fortunato, he says, “My dear Fortunato, you are luckily met.” Later, when

Montresor pretends to be concerned about Fortunato’s hacking cough as they

descend into the vaults, Montresor says, “We will go back. Your health is precious.

Your are rich, respected, admired, beloved; you are happy, as I once was. You are a

man to be missed.” Fortunato then tells Montresor not to worry: “The cough is a

mere nothing; it will not kill me. I will not die of a cough.” To this reply, Montresor

says, “True–true.” The reader at this point can almost see a devilish gleam in

Montresor’s eyes, for he knows exactly how Fortunato will die.” Later, Montresor

opens a bottle of wine and toasts Fortunato: “To your long life,” he says.

1.  Edgar Allan Poe's gothic tale, “The cask of Amontillado”, is really a story 

about the loss of face, or "amor propio". 

What is the expression in your language for the loss of face? What other

English words come to mind when you think of the word "face" in this sense? Losing your reputation.

The Insult

2.  How did Fortunato cause Montresor to lose face in the story? no specific reason for the insult.

The third paragraph of the story appears in full below. Read it carefully and try 

to imagine how Fortunato might have insulted Montresor.

"He had a weak point—this Fortunato—although in other regards he was a man to be

respected and even feared. He prided himself on his connoisseurship in wine. Few

Italians have the true virtuoso spirit. For the most part their enthusiasm is adopted to suit

the time and opportunity to practice imposture upon the British and Austrian millionaires.

In painting and gemmary Fortunato, like his countrymen, was a quack, but in the matter of

old wines he was sincere. In this respect I did not differ from him materially;—I was skillful in

the Italian vintages myself, and bought largely whenever I could."

3.  Does Montresor seem to have much respect for Italians? Which lines in the 

paragraph above reveal his contempt? the italians are all quacks he said.

4.  What was Fortunato's insult? No specific insult listed. 

5.  Why does Montresor entertain Fortunato with wines from his collection? He can lure him and he appeals to him. Also trying to get him drunk.
6.  In what two ways does Montresor imprison Fortunato? Chained him up.

The story, The Cask of Amontillado, first appeared in an anthology of Poe's

stories entitled Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque. Arabesque comes from the 

word Arab and refers to ornaments, decorations and motifs in Arabic art, where 

figures of flowers, fruits and sometimes animal outlines appear in elaborate 

patterns of interlaced lines, particularly those which have been borrowed by 

other cultures. Such arabesque patterns are reflected in some of the designs and 

motifs of the batik of Indonesia and Malaysia.

By analogy, then, an arabesque story is one of intricate design, which is told

through the use of fanciful language. Because arabesque graphic designs

sometimes depict fantastic creatures, Poe and others also applied this term to 

tales that dealt with fantastic or supernatural happenings. Grotesque refers to 

something distorted, ugly, abnormal, fantastic, or bizarre to the point of being 

ludicrous or absurd. In a grotesque story, characters are physically or 

psychologically deformed and engage in actions that may be abnormal or 

comically absurd.

7.  In what ways is The Cask of Amontillado grotesque? It is a plot about revenge and murder.

8.  First, which of Montresor's actions are abnormal? He cried and mocked his actions when he was yelling for help. 
9.  Is there anything grotesque about Fortunato? He was cocky and mean.

Humor Hunt

There are also numerous comic touches that Poe adds to this grotesque tale. Try 

to find 10 examples of Poe's use of grotesque humor. Follow this trail of humor 

chronologically through the story.

•Fortunato's name means lucky in Italian. This is ironic language play, as he was

hardly the lucky one in this story.

•Fortunato is dressed in a court jester's or fool's garb, complete with striped 


and cap and bells.

•The jingling of the bells of the cap in the catacombs.

•Montresor's exaggerated concern for Fortunato's health.

•A joke: Not knowing Montresor plans to kill him, Fortunato says, I shall not die 


a cough. To which Montresor replies, True-true.

•Pun: Montresor telling Fortunato he is a mason. (Fortunato was referring to

members of the society of Freemasons). Montresor reveals the trowel (a tool

used to apply mortar or cement) which he will use to build the wall which

entombs Fortunato.

•Fortunato's drunken condition.

•Fortunato bumping into the dead end of the niche where he will be entombed

and then looking bewildered.

•Fortunato's delirious laughter at the end.

•Another pun: Let us be gone. Montresor repeats Fortunato's words, not saying

that they shall leave together, but that Fortunato will be gone from this life.



Many critics consider Poe to be the father of the modern short story. He was the

first writer to define the short story as a distinct literary form. In a review of 

Nathaniel Hawthorne's anthology, Twice-Told Tales in Graham's Magazine, May 

1842, he described his personal theory on how to construct a "tale":

5 rules of short story writing following Poe's principles

Try to make a list of 5 rules for writing a short story as implied in Poe's essay. A

keyword has been given below to help with scanning

"A skillful literary artist has constructed a tale. If wise, he has not fashioned his thoughts to

accommodate his incidents: but having conceived, with deliberate care, a certain unique

or single effect to be wrought out, he then invents such incidents—he then combines

such events as may best aid him in establishing this preconceived effect. If his very initial

sentence tends not to the outbringing of this effect, then he has failed in his first step. In

the whole composition there should be no work written, of which the tendency, direct or

indirect, is not to the one pre-established design. And by such means, with such care and

skill, a picture is at length painted which leaves in the mind of him who contemplates it with

a kindred art, a sense of the fullest satisfaction."

1. Don't write on your own past or reflections.

2. Focus on a single event

3. First sentence must hook the reader.

4. Poe says you need a clear plot 

5. Leave the reader with one emotion that is clear.

Tuesday, September 10, 2013

the lottery

foreshadowing- clues or events in a story that hint to what will happen later.
in paragraph 2 the children gather stones.

homework 4 more foreshadows.....
1. the name of the box
2. black is death
3. mr.graves
4. referring to the cross

1) Through “The Lottery,” what point does Shirley Jackson

make about tradition? So the people that practice the tradition value it while outsiders look at it as strange.

• Identify at least one piece of evidence to support your


Foreshadowing is an advance sign or warning of what is to

come in the future.

2) What foreshadowing clues does Shirley Jackson

incorporate into her story? done

Setting is the physical location and time in which a story

takes place. To identify setting, we must note the specific

details the author provides concerning: a. The story’s

location. b. The time in which the action takes place.  c. The

social environment of the characters.

3) What is the setting for “The Lottery”? Why is that so

important to the theme of the story? In a small town in america, can happen at any time or place.

Mood can be defined as: the feeling a text conveys to readers.

4) What mood does “The Lottery” instill in its readers? How

does it do this? it goes from very happy to tense and dark. Characters act nervously and scared.

5) What do we know about when the lottery was started? It was a long time ago.

6) How do the townspeople feel about making changes to

the lottery? How do you know? they didn't like making changes and never made big changes to it.

Tuesday, September 3, 2013

summer reading post

     I chose this book because it related to me in which the main character, Sami, is a persian kid. I too am a persian kid and Sami is also 15 years old.
     This book is about a troubled 15 year old persian kid that gets made fun of and has 2 best friends that have been with him through thick and thin. He experiences minor racism remarks about his appearance and his family. Mid way through the book his dad gets accused of being a terrorist and mastermind of a terrorist plot. Sami doesn't believe it at all so he thinks to himself that his dad is just having an affair. But then he finds out that only he can get to the bottom of this. At the end he will find out he has a brother that his dad visits that is what gets him in trouble in the first place. His dad is released at the end and he told the truth about everything to Sami. The truth was that he had an affair before he was born with another woman and thats how the "Terrorist" is his brother.
     My favorite part of this book is the part when Sami and his two friends get in the "death mobile" which is the car and drive to his summer house and take the boat to hermit island. They drink and do misc. stuff on the island but at the end they find a scary guy with a gun saying get off my property ad they get away from that conflict and then they are closer than ever before.
     The worst part of the book is that the action of the book starts at the midway point so the beginning of the book is sort of boring but after halfway it is way better and suspenseful. 
     I would recommend this to my friends because we will not all be involved with terrorists but we can relate to the teenage years of sami.
     BOOK RATE:9/10

     I believe this book should be used again because of the relation kids can have to it.